The outbreak of large-scale hostilities in North America in 1755 did not lead immediately to a declaration of war, but attempts to maintain peace proved feeble. A reminder of the role of both spheres serves to correct claims that the Diplomatic Revolution, and international relations more generally, were dominated by the German question, and that other issues were thereby peripheral. The Convention of Westminster was presented by the British to the Austrians as freeing Austria from the apprehension of Prussian attack and therefore allowing her to concentrate on resisting France. The crisis over British military strategy interacted with that over diplomacy, each giving point to the other. The prohibition in the Anglo-Russian treaty of 1755 of separate negotiations with the common enemy was regarded as referring to Frederick, and Russian anger with the Convention of Westminster led them to refuse to ratify the treaty.