The Return of Principle
DOI link for The Return of Principle
The Return of Principle book
Twenty-first century cosmopolitans recognize that they demand greater concessions from states and greater sacrifices from individuals than the cosmopolitan thinkers of previous generations. When Chandler reviews the writings of Held, Archibugi and David Beetham, he finds that these thinkers see twenty-first century cosmopolitanism as a natural extension of political movements. The fact that so many found the coalition's presumption in invading Iraq so shocking illustrates a significant development in twenty-first century political thought. This chapter explains how the American founders phrased their Declaration of Independence to prevent this belief from eclipsing their republican commitment to self-determination. The history of the past two centuries suggests that the founders succeeded in their aim of forming a government could combine universalistic propositions with pragmatic policy. The difference between twenty-first century republicanism and twenty-first century cosmopolitanism lies in Lenin's question of kto-kogo. The United Nations acted in practical ways to realize cosmopolitan ideas about granting diverse transnational institutions an authoritative role in environmental politics.