This chapter presents conflict between equity and excellence. However, for public library professionals and policy makers, the central issue is how the public library service should react to the situation. Libraries and culture closely linked in Germany where most librarians tend to think of themselves as cultural workers. In France, the goals of municipal libraries were recently set out as: culture, information, heritage, training, self-improvement, leisure and pleasure. Yet European popular culture, especially in cinema and music, is largely moribund and lacking in creativity. In particular, public libraries in Africa need to start to be more aggressive and introduce services that are attractive to the users. Librarians must begin to know their potential users, and not only assume that they are school children. Other countries emphasize the importance of the public library to multi cultural communities. In other parts of the world library professionals are concerned about much newer forms of communication. Information technology is often cited as an issue.