This chapter explores conceptsthat have a significant influence on how project initiation decisions are made, from the perspective of the participants. It describes the broad influence on the project initiation process of the exercising of agency. The chapter discusses in those that are deemed to be essential influences on how project initiation decisions are being managed and influenced by individuals within the various participant organizations. It also discusses the decision effectiveness predominantly influenced by the exercise of agency, which is augmented by process effectiveness and rule effectiveness within an organization. Process effectiveness is itself influenced by process formality, process consistency, decision process formality and the exercising of process drivers of personal influence. These relationships reflect the collective influences on how agency is exercised in project initiation decisions, and provides a basis for formulating a theory of how agency and rule emphasis influence project initiation decisions.