Even though the audience plays a central role in jazz and live performances more generally, relatively little has been written about the audience’s role for the musicians and how they affect the overall performance. What discussion there has been has usually been anecdotal and mythologising. The history of jazz is replete with accounts of how musicians have responded to audiences, like flirting with women in the audience.1 As Berliner has pointed out, the audience increases pressures on musicians and potential rewards for the performance.2