The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was the first international treaty to address the conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of biological diversity in general. It was opened for signature at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in 1992, and entered into force on 29 December 1993. In its general approach to biological diversity, its provisions are aimed at all types of biodiversity. This chapter examines the CBD as it relates to PGRFA management, especially as regards developing countries. The adoption of the Global Strategy represents a major step forward in international efforts for the conservation of plant genetic diversity. The CBD occupies a challenging position: It is not only a stand-alone agreement with its own measures of implementation to be followed up, but also a framework convention for those protocols and other agreements that are regarded as implementing measures.