By analyzing the context in which the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of DHS works, this chapter tests the first and fourth case study propositions proposed in Chapter 1. In contrast to the case study proposition that says IGs focus on small problems ignoring the larger systemic issues that produce the same small problems, evidence from reports from the DHS OIG and the Government Accountability Office (GAO), shows that the DHS OIG has not only been constantly warning DHS about systemic problems in its complex programs and operations, but it also has been seriously issuing recommendations on how to improve those challenges. In the same vein, data from DHS and DHS OIG’s budget and performance budget reports support the case study proposition that says IGs offices have become more independent (i.e., adequate staff and budget as well as politically independent). DHS OIG has experienced actual financial and political independence, which greatly enhanced its effectiveness.