This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in this book. The book shows that the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS OIG) has accomplished positive results related to the elements of effectiveness identified by the theory: increased recoveries, savings, indictments and convictions; recommendations influencing agency management; focus on agency systemic problems; and prevention of wrongdoing by taking a proactive role helping to improve overall agency performance and organizational independence. The book analyzes corruption and fraud cases, which reveal culture of corruption in some DHS components. It offers evidence to refute propositions by Light, Gore and the National Performance Review regarding IGs effectiveness. The book discusses the DHS challenges remain critical, but some progress has been made. Finally, while the concept of IGs effectiveness is difficult to define, the book analyzes the selected components of IGs effectiveness through an embedded case study design can be used to evaluate other federal IGs.