This chapter will present the research design of this study including the statement of the problem, the study question, the study propositions, and the method. This study embraces what is called an embedded case study design, which is well-suited to studying institutions such as the Inspector General (IG). The first section of this chapter addresses contrasting theories on bureaucratic oversight mechanisms (BOMs). Scholars are divided in favor of and against the establishments of those controls. Basically, they are suspicious about the effectiveness of such oversight mechanisms like the IGs. However, a systematic and in-depth study supporting those propositions is absent. The challenge is taken in this book by conducting an in-depth study of the IG of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A brief overview of the IG community follows. Then, in the second section, the study question is developed through a literature review of previous research on IGs. It addresses elements of overall effectiveness identified by the theory. Finally, in the third part, the study’s propositions (e.g., hypotheses) and method are developed. This part discusses the embedded case study design including the selection of the unit and subunits of analysis. It concludes with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the embedded case study design.