The concept of profit-oriented enterprise is expressly enshrined in Russian law. Socialist planning was developed to extremes in the Soviet Union, and the concept of Soviet economic law corresponded to it, and this has not yet been fully abandoned in the present Russian law. Civil law regulation, which covers the main part of the regulation of enterprise activities, was renewed in Russia by its total codification. Russian law is grounded in the Roman law tradition. The Russian legal system is well acquainted with precedents of interpretation and gap-filling, precedents arising out of judicial review, and precedents of discretion. State regulation is performed in Russia by both generally and specially empowered bodies. Civil liability concerning enterprise activities is regulated not only by general but also by specific rules. The legal protection of civil law rights belongs to the general principles of Russian civil law which are enforced directly by law.