In Russia the legal regulation of intellectual property is based on international and national norms. International legal norms for protection of intellectual property are purported to secure a minimum level of legal protection with which the national legislation in the member countries must correspond. The rules concerning intellectual property are also contained in other legislation, including the Constitution. Intellectual property is, according to Article of Russian Constitution, under state protection. Intellectual rights in Russian law, as elsewhere, are independent of the right of ownership to the physical carrier. The transfer of the right of ownership to a thing does not usually entail the transfer or granting of the intellectual rights to the result of intellectual activity expressed in the thing. The Civil Code also contains special provisions concerning protection of the exclusive right to a means of individualization. This. Contracts for the alienation of exclusive right and license contracts concerning the objects subjected to registration are also to be registered.