This chapter will review human enhancement technologies as they relate to neuroscience, as well as to brain and behavioural research that can be used for sustaining and enhancing the performance of warfighters. The chapter will look at four enhancement approaches that for many reasons seem to be most promising in terms of improving human performance: (1) neuropharmaceutical enhancement, (2)  brain monitoring and stimulation, (3)  brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and (4) genetic selection and enhancement.