This chapter will look at two very controversial areas of possible neuroweapons development:  nonlethal directed energy weapons or ‘electromagnetic mind control’ and cyber or ‘informational’ weapons that ‘hack’ the human mind, either through a BCI or through perception, e.g. subliminals. A general problem with respect to reviewing these technologies, which has been acknowledged by many NLW experts, is the fact that much of this kind of NLW research is highly classified. Neil Davison’s excellent book on NLW mentions ‘secrecy’ more than twenty times and he devotes three long paragraphs to it (Davison, 2009). The NRC report on ‘Emerging Technologies’ only has some small sections dealing with neuroweapons (NRC, 2008: 133). At least it acknowledges that the ‘neurotechnology degradation market segment is completely underground with only speculative information available. This cognitive weapons market does exist’ (NRC, 2008: 129). The Royal Society report only discussed neuropharmaceuticals and bioregulators as potential neuroweapons, mostly disregarding other approaches (Royal Society, 2012: 43-59).