This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book explores relation to people's quest for progress and social mobility and involves a negotiation of social as well as spatial categories. The values ascribed to circulation and exchanges do not infer that people's involvement in markets is realized through harmonious relationships devoid of conflict and exploitation. The stigma of the Andean and the negotiation of social identities do not necessarily entail that the significance of indigenous socialities is un-made in the process. Among the effects of an ideology of mestizaje has de-legitimatization of indigenous people's demands for cultural and territorial rights. The effects of an ideology of mestizaje are in contradictory in this regard, and the possibility of unsettling and redefining the boundaries of social categories, there is still a polarization and essentialization in this context of the indigenous and Hispanic, and a reproduction of inequality based on class ethnicity.