In this chapter, we will look first at the relationship between democracy and multinationality. This section will introduce the concepts of Liberal Nationalism and Consociationalism as two ways of addressing the multinational character of a state within a democratic framework. The second section will look at the perspective of federalism as an instrument to manage different nations within the borders of a single state. Multinational federalism is often seen as an appropriate concept, so the advantages and problems of this conception need to be discussed in more detail. To do so, this chapter will discuss different perspectives on multinational federalism. Finally, the relationship between democracy and nationalism within a multinational federation shall be examined. The chapter will end with the discussion of three core problems of multinational federations, namely citizenship, secession and asymmetry.