We are now in a position to assess the ‘Porto Alegre effect’ that we initially proposed as a hypothesis. The link between the development of European participatory budgeting in the 2000s and the alter-globalisation former ‘capital city’ is clear and the transfers that took place through visits, networks and the diffusion of procedures or ideology were decisive factors. Without the Brazilian experience and its appropriation by the alter-globalisation movement and other actors, first among which were left-wing activists, Europe would not have experienced the set of procedures now labelled ‘participatory budgeting’. Even in Germany, the Porto Alegre process has been imported in a second phase. However, its role in Poland or other ‘new’ countries (former Yugoslav countries, Sweden) seems less decisive. Since the 2010 period, there has been a great diversification of procedures and actors, making the Brazilian model one reference among others. In addition, the idea of an initial wave emanating from Porto Alegre should be put into context, given the significant differences between one participatory budgeting process and another. Many European countries have so far missed out on participatory budgeting altogether and even where the procedure exists, it varies greatly from one place to another. Furthermore, when one looks closely at the development of participation, as well as its administrative, social and political effects and challenges, one is forced to admit that these differences are not merely procedural in nature. Rather, they appear due to different local actor coalitions, who differ greatly between one town and another, even within countries. Sometimes, the situation can be significantly affected by a single individual. In addition to these micro-sociological interactions, case studies have shown greater contrasts that are due to the political culture and context of each of the countries analysed, as well as the ways in which administrative modernisation and participation are linked, and the extent to which participatory procedures are integrated into the overall political process.