ABSTRACT

This chapter provides a detailed analysis of how the Pakistani community living in Bradford made sense of their citizenship and identity in the aftermath of the worst urban riots in Britain since the 1980s. It examines how citizenship' is used as an aspect of British Pakistani identity, using the idea of generations as a unit of analysis. The chapter examines the relationship between national identity and citizenship as an identity, arguing that Britishness and Englishness are racialized' identities, whilst citizenship as an identity is not, which is precisely why it can be drawn upon by the respondents. It considers how the respondents expressed their citizenship identities in the context of their ethnic, cultural and religious contexts. The chapter highlights the generational differences in citizenship identities, where younger people's identities are contrasted with the older generation's weaker denizen' identity born of the insecurity produced by their migration to Britain by considering the interview data.