This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of the book. The book focuses on an aspect of agency, we all know that daily literacy practices put all these aspects at play. It explores how different aspects of agency can be significant, in different contexts, so that, as teachers and researchers, we can have some frameworks for recognizing what is taking place with individual readers and writers. The research in the book adds to a growing body of research that demonstrates that the emphasis on high-stakes assessments leads to students, as well as teachers, who feel unmotivated, stressed, and regard writing and reading in school as disconnected from the literacy practices of their daily lives. It offers ways to engage public and institutional conversations about literacy education. Part of being more effective teachers is also how we respond to these larger cultural perceptions, particularly when the result is bad educational policy.