The triple helix of innovation and entrepreneurship is realized through the creation of novel institutional structures such as the entrepreneurial university. The research university emerged as a distinctive institutional format in the mid-19th century, bringing together two activities, teaching and research, which had developed separately in colleges and scientific societies. Combining a "third mission" of economic and social development, with teaching and research, the entrepreneurial university is a growing contemporary phenomenon. A new Academic Revolution is underway, making economic and social development an academic mission, following from the Academic Revolution in the 19th century, which made research an academic mission. An entrepreneurial university is the generative principle in the development of a "triple helix" of university–industry–government relations. Such an innovation regime takes a pro-active stance in putting knowledge to use and in broadening the input into the creation of academic knowledge.