Indiana was the first state to develop a comprehensive approach to improving educational opportunities for low-income students. Indiana's public higher education system developed a distinct set of generally accessible public colleges. There are two strong state research university systems—Indiana University and Purdue University—that have their own branch campuses. Indiana's balanced approach to providing access to higher education began to develop even before Stan Jones's appointment as commissioner. Degree completion rates can be influenced by many factors, including individual background, academic programs and college life, support services on campuses, and public policy. Beginning in 2011, the Core 40 curriculum became the minimum requirement for admission into the public 4-year college sector. Performance funding is a commonly attempted strategy for tying state funding to postsecondary outcomes, but it is not frequently thought of relative to college access. Indiana's higher education system has made substantial gains in access and more-modest improvements in retention, especially in private nonprofit colleges.