ABSTRACT

The relationships between sprawl and travel outcomes can be used to validate our county sprawl measures, and also to see if one measure has more predictive power than another. Using American Factfinder, we downloaded data from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS), five-year estimates, and computed average vehicle ownership, mode shares, and average drive time by county. Average vehicle ownership is, as expected, directly related to household size, household income, and percentage of whites in the population. Vehicle ownership is negatively related to average fuel price, doubtless because the generalized cost of automobile use is higher in metropolitan areas with higher fuel prices. Walking to work is negatively related to the violent crime rate within the county. Crime has been found to discourage physical activity generally. Transit use is negatively related to the percentage of whites in the population, which may suggest a particular bias against transit for this racial group.