This chapter examines the genesis and development of human rights institutions in New York, San Francisco and Barcelona. The cases of New York and San Francisco exemplify the development of civil and human rights in US cities, respectively, while emphasising an element already highlighted in the previous chapter: the centrality of civil society organisations in the promotion of local human rights institutions. In line with the analysis of the European Charter for the Safeguarding of Human Rights in the city conducted in Chapter 2, the case of Barcelona offers an example of institutionalisation of human rights in which local politicians play a more proactive role, within the so-called ‘Barcelona model.’ The case of Barcelona also offers an example of policy importation and adaptation, namely anti-discrimination policy. Finally, we appreciate how the law combines with human rights in the three cities to produce a higher degree of legalisation of human rights in the two US cities compared to Barcelona. The first two parts deal with New York and San Francisco, while the third and the fourth examines the case of Barcelona, starting from the overall development of the policy from civil to human rights and then examining more closely the institutions established for human rights implementation.