The discussion of citizenship in the second half of the twentieth century resulted in a great deal of work on theoretical conceptualizations of citizenship as an institution, as well as on analysis of major trends in the development of citizenship. Immanuel Wallerstein argues that the binary opposition that had been proclaimed between active and passive citizens is crucial for understanding the dynamics of citizenship as a tool of inclusion/exclusion within the capitalist world-system. The empirical analysis traces the evolution of civil rights, political rights and social rights, using certain historical turning points that permit both new interpretations of citizenship and the assertion of new dimensions of rights. Limitations of social citizenship provisions and new naturalization laws became the tools of the reproduction of inequality in the second half of the twentieth century. As a supplement to the research of the retrospective dynamics of citizenship, a comparative analysis was made among states representing different clusters of the current world-system.