This chapter explores social constructionist alternatives; the next takes up new social movement theory. Although resource mobilization and political process approaches are meso-level theories, they also resonated with macro-level premises about domination and social order. The symbolic interactionist tradition within sociology was particularly well-positioned to provide such understandings. A central task confronting movements is frame alignment, or the linkage between individual interests, values, and beliefs on the one hand and social movement activities, goals, and ideology on the other. Frame transformation may redefine a condition 'previously seen as unfortunate but tolerable as inexcusable, unjust, or immoral'. Protagonist identity fields define the people and groups who are participants in, supporters of, or presumed beneficiaries of a movement. A final example of the social construction of protest concerns the role of opportunity that features so prominently in the political process model.