Reference to the work of Antonio Gramsci is de rigeur for a number of people who engage the historical materialist tradition to explore educational and cultural initiatives for social transformation. Often referred to as the Lenin of the Occident (Morrow and Torres, 1995), Gramsci was mainly concerned, in his work and writings, with the development of a revolutionary strategy for complex Western societies characterized by regional differentiation, uneven levels of development (central to the capitalist mode of production) and a variety of social groups struggling for justice and a greater share of power.