Most of the sludge entering rural Pennsylvania isn't local; it comes from the city of Pittsburgh which generates tons of waste every day from homes, hospitals, and industry. Dumping it in the landfill has always been an expensive proposition for waste management companies. Sludge is everything that passes through the sewage system not just human waste flushed from toilets but also industrial waste, much of which is illegally dumped in municipal sewers. The loosened standards for sludge spreading caught the attention of an attorney named Thomas Linzey. Thomas Linzey had founded the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund (CELDF) as a law school graduate in 1995 to assist those who could not afford to challenge companies that were violating regulatory law. When the Pennsylvania legislature lowered the states waste management standards, CELDF was flooded with calls. One of the places where the Pennock story took hold was Porter Township in Clarion County.