This chapter explores the layout and structures of cities in the Greco-Roman and early Islamic Near East. It begins by examining how these newly founded cities were laid out and argues that they are generally based on a “Hippodamian” city plan, which was designed on a grid pattern. The most important feature of these Near Eastern cities after the first century CE was long colonnaded streets, and the typical forms and functions of these streets are described in this chapter. Structures examined include street monuments (such as the tetrapylon, triumphal arch, and nymphaeum), plazas and markets (such as the agora, forum, and macellum), religious structures (including temples, churches, and mosques), and entertainment buildings (such as theaters, amphitheaters, hippodromes, and public baths).