Chapter 3 begins with the analysis of cities by examining the cities of Antioch and Apamea. Both were cities of the Tetrapolis, which was a series of four cities founded by the Seleucids to control Syria. Antioch later became the most important city of the Near East. Unfortunately, it lies buried under many layers of silt and a modern city. Apamea, however, has been extensively excavated. Both were rebuilt following an early second century CE earthquake; therefore, Apamea helps scholars to understand how Antioch would have been designed. Both cities flourished in the early Christian period, but a series of disasters harmed the cities in the sixth century. The nature of the settlements in the early Islamic period is debated.