This chapter summarizes the topics of the work, namely that city planning was introduced by the new Greek and Macedonian settlers. All areas of the Near East blossomed with the Age of Augustus, even in areas not directly ruled by Rome but by kings such as Herod and Aretas IV. This book argues that the second century, especially in the wake of Hadrian’s travels in the Near East, was formative for the development of cities. In late antiquity, the cities remained vibrant, but they were different. Now, they were (mostly) dominated by Christians and their churches, and in several cities, the public, non-religious, spaces were no longer considered important. This is not a sign of prosperity, but a change within the culture. Cities became more commercial and industrial, and this process accelerated under the Muslim rulers, who continued to patronage cities as a way to enhance their prestige and power.