In one of the first published academic studies of YouTube, Burgess and Green (2009b: 81) observed that it was a ‘potential site of cosmopolitan cultural citizenship-a space in which individuals can represent their identities and perspectives, engage with the self-representations of others, and encounter cultural difference’. A similar observation, that YouTube had become a global site on which millions of individuals in dispersed locations around the world and with myriad language backgrounds could engage in translingual and intercultural communication, inspired the research program on which this book is based.