This chapter explores understandings and treatments of Chronic Mental Health Conditions (CMHC) and then explains how a social identity approach can provide a way forward for practice and policy related to the management of these conditions. The term CMHC typically includes such conditions as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorders, recurrent depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, and addiction. A person with schizophrenia experiences distortions in thinking that can affect their language, perceptions, attention, and sense of self. In bipolar disorders people experience symptoms of depression and mania that fluctuate over time. Like the original interpersonal psychotherapy for depression interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) focuses on trying to resolve participants' current interpersonal problems and preventing future problems in these areas. It seems possible that the superiority of family-focused therapy on this index reflects the fact that individual-focused treatments such as Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and IPSRT tend to overlook the importance of social group factors.