This chapter explores the range of different approaches that have previously guided efforts to understand and treat chronic physical health conditions (CPHC). Much of the evidence presented in the chapter comes primarily from the CPHC that are the cause of the greatest burden of disease worldwide. The biomedical approach is the traditional model for managing CPHC and underpins many modern health services, particularly tertiary care. The focus of the biomedical approach to CPHC is on the biological pathology that underlies symptoms of ill health. In order to relieve symptoms and the suffering associated with them, the pathological cause must be identified and, where possible, eliminated. Once CPHC are diagnosed, the biomedical approach will inform efforts to target treatment to correct the underlying biological pathology. This approach can provide excellent outcomes, though it can sometimes have unintended consequences. For instance, side effects of treatment can inadvertently be worse than the symptoms they aim to relieve.