Depression affects people from all walks of life, and many people live with symptoms similar to his. People with depression are more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged , to be in conflict-affected or developing countries, to be women, and to be aged between 15 and 25 years. Depression is further characterised by cognitive symptoms (hopelessness, rumination, and suicidal thoughts), emotional symptoms (anger, guilt), physiological symptoms (changes to sleep, appetite, and energy levels), and behavioural symptoms, particularly withdrawal from normal activities. The cognitive-behavioural model of depression is the dominant approach in psychology. In light of the strengths and limitations of the models discussed above, there are several goals that a new psychology of depression might seek to achieve. The study found that joining social groups reduced the likelihood of individuals experiencing a first episode of depression.