This chapter considers the social phenomenon of intercountry adoption (ICA), examines some key definitional matters and summarises the current trends in its use. It identifies the supranational framework of bodies and outlines the human rights provisions that have a bearing, direct or otherwise, on national or transnational adoption law and practice. The chapter notes the key principles in various Conventions, particular attention being given to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC) and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR). It shows the relevance of the United Nations Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally and to the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. The chapter explains contemporary ICA practice with a special focus on those adoptions governed by the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption.