This chapter examines the background social factors that have shaped the modern German adoption process. It identifies and assesses recent trends in the flow of adoption orders and the more characteristic principles that have come to shape current adoption practice. The chapter details the legislative framework for adoption, on both a domestic and intercountry basis, giving consideration to the policies that inform statute law. It outlines the German adoption process, explains the role of its regulatory bodies and adoption agencies, and tracks the path taken by the parties through the sequence of stages that end with the making of an adoption order. At each stage, the chapter identifies and discusses what appear to be the main human rights issues and considers the availability of post-adoption support services, information disclosure rights and arrangements for tracing and reunification. It concludes by reflecting on the more distinctive hallmarks of contemporary adoption law and practice in Germany and their implications for human rights.