DOI link for Institutional effects
Institutional effects book
Some scholars (Dahl 2005; Grugel 2002; Vanhanen 1992; Hirst 1994; Schedler 2002 a,b ) say that the role of institutions is important for democratic transition. Institutions here mean the structures of power set-up. There are different structures of power that constrain the behaviour and thinking of elites and individuals in society, such as economic, social and political. Every individual is born and grows up with certain structures and practices them though the individual may later be infl uenced by the surrounding environment. Certain structural patterns can be conducive to democracy and others to authoritarianism. The existing structures can become a hindrance or constraint to democracy. Elites and individuals may take decisions, but such choices can only be explained with reference to the structural constraints and opportunities of the time. This chapter analyses the government’s (SLORC/SPDC) seven-step road map towards democracy, the 1990 election and the entrenchment of military role, the 2010 general election and the fi rst steps towards restoration of democracy, the understanding reached between the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) government and National League for Democracy (NLD) and the institutional role of sangha (Buddhist monks) in the 2007 saffron revolution.