This chapter discusses the composition and distribution of India's population, and the policy options that the country may take up to address the population concerns and also listing the challenges stemming from the structure. India's population has grown because mortality began to decline first and fertility declined with a time lag. The demographic transition from a regime of high mortality and fertility has been followed initially by a decline in death rate due to improved sanitation and public health, medical care and control of epidemics and diseases. The birth rate continued to remain high for some time leading to population growth. This stage is followed by a decline in birth rate reaching the regime of low mortality and fertility. The industrial and service sectors that provide employment opportunities for the rapidly growing working-age population and the increased entry of women into the labour force require foresight, resources and progressive policies and governance structure.