This chapter discusses that India has tried a range of policy options, programme measures including promoting various contraceptives, to curb population growth. It discusses the policy options that address the engines or sources of population growth and the contributing factors such as relatively high infant and maternal mortality, low level of girls education and womens agency. In the regions and the population groups where fertility continues to be relatively high, need to understand and address the social and economic factors that influence the high desired fertility. World over, no population group has experienced fertility decline and attained closer to the replacement-level fertility without first experiencing significant decline in infant and child mortality. India must strengthen its education system by focusing on improving quality of pedagogy at all levels, school infrastructure and training of teachers. Provision of education does enhance womens status but it is equally important to invest in creating conducive atmosphere to provide women social identity beyond motherhood.