The book so far has outlined with a historical perspective why and how India's population has grown. It is also evident from the discussion that India has tried a range of policy options, programme measures including promoting various contraceptives (often with a focus on one method at a time), to curb population growth. This final chapter discusses the policy options that address the engines or sources of population growth (unmet need for family planning, high desired fertility and momentum) and the contributing factors such as relatively high infant and maternal mortality, low level of girls’ education and women's agency. Admittedly, a lot has been written and articulated in various forums on these measures and some efforts have been made to bring about improvements in them through legislation and taking up various programmes. Yet, a lot needs to be done.