This chapter examines the role of the non-governmental organizations. It encompasses the not-for-profit, voluntary sector and the for-profit commercial sector. NGOs in India have historically played myriad roles in family planning, ranging from awareness generation, advocacy, training, service delivery and research on a range of issues including social marketing of contraceptive technologies. NGO networks raised their voice against unethical human trials of certain hormone-based contraceptives, imposition of two-child norm on certain relatively low-level functionaries and non-availability of safe abortion services. While the formal private sector provides family planning services at variable costs to the clients, there are a few organizations that provide family planning services as social franchisee agencies. Set up as Family Planning Foundation (FPF) in 1970, the industrialist founders J. R. D. Tata and Bharat Ram garnered the support of other enlightened, socially committed and philanthropically inclined industrialists and founded the FPF. The funds under corporate social responsibility (CSR) for intervention or action research may help some groups.