This chapter discusses the statistics on contraceptive use generated from surveys, and those estimated from official statistics of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). It analyses data on contraceptive use, method-mix and their determinants, contraceptive use dynamics and the unmet need for family planning. The chapter addresses the impact of use of contraception on fertility. Estimates of contraceptive prevalence rates (CPR) for the country as a whole and for the states are available from two sources: service or programme statistics compiled by the MOHFW and periodic nationwide surveys. Despite the cafeteria approach officially adopted by the family planning programme, the Indian family planning programme has right from its launch relied heavily on sterilization. Another important feature of female sterilization in India is the declining age at sterilization. Fertility is affected by factors that determine the length of time women are exposed to the risk of pregnancy to conception and carrying the pregnancy to full term.