ABSTRACT

This chapter presents the findings related to the effect of the traditional determinants on contraceptive use and fertility and examines some of the detailed and nuanced findings that would be pointers to the needed programmatic measures and interventions. In almost all analyses, contraceptive use and fertility have generally been viewed as dependent or outcome variables, which are affected by a range of demographic, social, cultural and economic factors. Two important economic characteristics on which fertility and contraceptive use data are available from surveys are employment status of women and wealth index of the household. The use of contraception among women from all wealth quintiles has increased over time, including among those who belonged to the lowest 20 per cent on wealth index. Higher use of contraception by working women is reflected in their level of fertility also. Studies have found that women working as cultivators and agricultural labourers have lower fertility rates compared to non-working women.