The two preceding chapters have attempted to provide a view of current patterns of urban development in most underdeveloped countries, and the problems which have been attendant on the evolution of this pattern. A tendency towards primate city development has been shown to be consequent on the strategy not only of colonial exploitation, but particularly of import substitution industrialization which has been adopted in many underdeveloped countries. This tendency, if anything, emphasizes the outward orientation of the economies of these countries and their continued dependency on erstwhile metropolitan countries. This orientation has encouraged an unrealistic attitude to problems arising from the prevailing situation. Certainly, in hardly any underdeveloped countries does one feel that the tripartite problems of urban unemployment, environmental degradation and social alienation are being confronted with imagination and the necessary initiative.