The introduction of the ICAO language profi ciency requirements (LPRs) discussed in Chapter 3 spawned a fl urry of activity in the aviation language training and testing markets. Not only did many civil aviation authorities develop their own in-house tests in response to the ICAO LPRs, so did many commercial organisations. As a result, regulators were faced with important decisions as to which test results could be accepted for licensure purposes. It therefore became important for regulators and other stakeholders to be able to determine the quality of the language tests available on the market, and this proved to be a challenge due to:

1 a lack of expertise in language testing on the part of many stakeholders and decision makers; and

2 a lack of information regarding the validity of many of the tests available on the market.