This chapter provides a synopsis of the contextual factors that have the potential to adversely affect aviation communication. Referred to as stressors, these can be either physical or psychological and all have the potential to modify communication performance. One particular stressor that is discussed at length in this chapter is ‘noise’. Noise, while not unique to aviation, is prevalent. Its interaction with the language background of the speaker is of particular interest to aviation and effective communication, as its effect is more pronounced for non-native speakers.