Early sociological work on the transition to parenthood focused on parenthood as crisis. In this model, first-time parents encounter anxiety, uncertainty, loss of confidence-even shock-during the first days and weeks of parenting. The strains of parenthood can be overwhelming, and the demands alter the quality as well as quantity of time spent on the marital relationship. More time and energy are spent on children-related issues than on marriage-related ones. When couples nurture their children but not their marriage, the risk of divorce increases. Traditional gender roles also can drive a wedge between the new parents. When women do virtually all of the infant care and take on the added housework demands, they adopt new roles. Men tend to maintain prefatherhood roles, often retreating to workplace roles that may find themselves emotionally distanced from both wife and newborn (Bell et al., 2007; Galdiolo and Roskam, 2012). The crisis of parenthood is eased when gender roles are more flexible and couples make a determined effort to enhance closeness.