This chapter focuses on the upward' vertical transaction of interlinkage between national and European levels of activity, as distinct from its downward' vertical transaction as represented by the effects of transnational co-operation on the national parties. Generally, the prospect of direct elections had the effect of reinforcing or intensifying traditional party outlooks on European federalism. The chapter describes that whereas Christian Democratic parties tended as new postwar formations to be more Euro-centric, parties of the left both Socialist and Communist with their longer-standing traditions embraced a wider internationalism because of their identity as party of world-wide international movements. The Union for French Democracy (UDF) continued to operate for European elections even though the CDS belonged to the European People's Party (EPP) and was likely to elect its MEPs to the Christian Democratic group in the European Parliament (EP), while the other two parties had joined the ELD and belonged to the Liberal group.