An ethical belief must be believed by someone; and the psycho-analytical discoveries, which are concerned with the development of the ethical systems of individuals, are the most profitable basis from which to begin an examination of the scientific basis of ethics. Psycho-analytical literature is voluminous, and is couched in a somewhat anthropomorphic jargon which, while it may be an inevitable result of attempting to write in conscious language of mental processes which do not occur within consciousness, is undoubtedly not very perspicuous for the layman. But one

may, with all due diffidence, mention two points which seem to emerge from it.