Chapter 1 begins with a brief history of school counseling starting with the turn of the 20th century’s vocational guidance movement to present day evidence-based comprehensive school counseling, including the rise of the American School Counselor Association National Model. School counselors deliver comprehensive school counseling programs that affect students’ academic, behavioral, and career development within a complex system that involves the school, home, and community settings. Four primary components form the blueprint of the ASCA National Model: Foundation, Management, Delivery, and Accountability. The authors discuss the current era of evidence-based school counseling and relevant standards for school counseling training programs, standards for school counseling, and the benefits of evidence-based school counseling. An evidence-based school counselor uses data to define a problem, applies interventions and best practices that have been identified through research, and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions. Finally, the authors share relevant outcome research published since 2005 supporting the delivery of school counseling programs.