By the 1880s, public fascination with photographic reality was losing some of its luster as hordes of snapshooters could now make their own photographs. People were questioning the previously semi-magical position of professional photographers and the level of intelligence, sensitivity, and skill required to make photographs. The photographer’s status as a shaman had suffered a body blow. The professional portrait business declined as amateurs made more photographs of people. The photography studios needed something to restore their authority and their business. In response, organizations such as the Photographers’ Association of America formed (1880) to “reach out beyond the chemistry, optics, art, and mechanics of our art-science, and take hold of the morals of the craft.” In particular, they wanted to encourage all in the profession to “respect themselves more, and the public to honor us in a larger degree than they have.”1 Schools, like the Chicago College of Photography (1881), validated a photographer’s skills by offering certificate courses in photography. A graduate would presumably “possess the art, character, and tone” of a knowledgeable professional and thus command “a higher money value … for his work.”2